Robert S potassium bitartrate . Weinstein, M.D., Paula K. Roberson, Ph.D., and Stavros C. Manolagas, M.D., Ph.D.: Giant Osteoclast Development and Long-Term Oral Bisphosphonate Therapy Bisphosphonates are used worldwide to prevent fractures in sufferers with osteoporosis.1-6 Treatment with these drugs decreases the price of bone resorption and degrees of biochemical markers of bone turnover and causes progressive raises in bone mineral density. The clinical efficacy of nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates is widely thought to result from their potent ability to decrease the amount of osteoclasts by marketing their apoptosis.7-9 Once osteoclasts become apoptotic, they’re usually quickly ingested by bone marrow phagocytes.10 However, enumeration of osteoclasts in specimens of cancellous bone obtained from patients treated with nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates displays surprisingly little, if any, change in the number of osteoclasts.11,12 This observation suggests that the mechanism where these drugs function in vivo may differ from the current thinking.
The highest degrees of mental stress occurred in caregivers who had depression when their cherished one was identified as having Alzheimer’s, the investigators found. ‘The occurrence of also moderate depressive symptoms predicted a mental load on the family caregiver regardless of, for instance, the progression of the disease,’ study author Tarja Valimaki said in a University of Eastern Finland news discharge. Valimaki is a scientific researcher in the university’s section of nursing science. The researchers also found that spouses had higher levels of mental stress in the beginning of the research than other family members caregivers, and that spouses’ stress increased through the three years of follow-up.