Operating expenses. Operating expenditures were RMB97.0 million for the 1st quarter of 2012, representing a rise of 25.0 percent from RMB77.6 million for the same period in 2011. Research and development costs.8 million , or 7.3 percent of net revenues, compared to RMB7.8 million , or 6.6 percent of net revenues, for the same period in 2011. The increase is due to elevated labor costs, medical testing and trials expenses related to NuPIAO and Uricase-PEG 20. Sales, distribution and marketing expenses.7 million , or 47.3 percent of net revenues, compared to RMB55.4 million , or 46.8 percent of net revenues, for the same period in 2011.Given the known efficacy of alendronate for a reduction in the price of hip fracture, the bigger rates of most three types of fracture among alendronate users had been attributed to the increased use of alendronate among high-risk individuals rather than an increase in risk associated with alendronate. This confounding by indication is a bias observed in nonrandomized studies.15 The authors concluded that there was no proof an increased risk of fracture of the subtrochanteric or diaphyseal femur with either short-term or long-term use of a bisphosphonate.